Geosistemy perehodnykh zon = Geosystems of Transition Zones / Геосистемы переходных зон
Content is available under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY 4.0)

2022, volume 6, № 1, pp. 43–53


Subfossil pollen spectra as evidence of the altitudinal zonation of the Southern Sikhote-Alin
Ludmila M. Mokhova,,
Ekaterina P. Kudryavtseva,,
Тихоокеанский институт географии ДВО РАН, Владивосток, Россия
Abstract PDF ENG Резюме PDF RUS Full text PDF RUS

Abstract. The correspondence of pollen spectra from surface soil samples from the Olkhovaya Mountain (height 1669 m) to vertical belt vegetation (coniferous-broadleaved forests, spruce-fir forests and golets belt) was analyzed. Attention is paid to the analysis of the pollen spectra formed under alpine vegetation, including spruce forests at an altitude of 1600 m and on a swampy area near the Alekseevskoye Lake, a unique alpine lake in the Southern Sikhote-Alin. Pollen of woody vegetation prevailed in subfossil spectra from all vegetation belts, the composition of pollen of herbaceous plants and spores was poor. 16 taxa of arboreal, 8 taxa of nonarboreal, 5 taxa of spores were identified. It was found that the ratio of the main taxa, in general, corresponds to the dominant plants of the vegetation cover. It is shown that the local vegetation is not fully reflected in the subfossil spectra in the alpine belt, especially there is little pollen from shrubs and grasses, and waterlogged habitats are poorly reflected. It was revealed which pollen from the leading plant families and genera of flora of the highlands is not reflected in the pollen spectra. It has been established how much allochthonous pollen and what taxa were carried by the wind from lower relief levels. Taxa with remote sources were found. In general, the pollen spectra from the Olkhovaya Mountain highlands reflect the widespread development of spruce forests near the peak. Presence of spruce forests and a small area of the alpine zone are the main reasons explaining why forest pollen spectra with a predominance of dark coniferous pollen were obtained above the forest boundary. The results obtained were compared with the data on subfossil spectra from soils and surface peat of the bogs of the Sergeevskoye and Shkotovskoye plateaus, as well as the Partizanskaya and the Kievka rivers basins. The data obtained are important for more correct paleogeographical reconstructions: biomization methods in the mountainous areas of the south Far East and the development of methodological techniques for assessing quantitative paleoclimatic parameters.

Olkhovaya Mountain, Alexeevsky Ridge, golets belt, spruce-fir forests, Korean pine-broadleaved forests, pollen analysis

For citation: Mokhova L.M., Kudryavtseva E.P. Subfossil pollen spectra as evidence of the altitudinal zonation of the Southern Sikhote-Alin. Geosistemy perehodnykh zon = Geosystems of Transition Zones, 2022, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 43–53. (In Russ., abstr. in Engl.).

Для цитирования: Мохова Л.М., Кудрявцева Е.П. Субфоссильные спорово-пыльцевые спектры как отражение высотной поясности Южного Сихотэ-Алиня. Геосистемы переходных зон, 2022, т. 6, № 1, с. 43–53.


1. Badenkov Yu.P., Kotlyakov V.M., Chistyakov K.V. 2014. Mountains in regional development strategies: the role and investment of science. Voprosy geografii [Problems of Geography], 137: 13–28. (In Russ.).

2. Oliva M., Ruiz-Fernandez J., Nyvlt D. 2018. Past environments in midlatitude mountain regions. Quaternary International, 420: 1–3.

3. Korotkyi A.M., Skryl’nik G.P., Korobov V.P. 2009. Vegetation changes in the upper mountain belts under influence of exogenous processes (Late Pleistocene – Holocene). Bull. Botanicheskogo sada-instituta DVO RAN [Bull. of Botanical Garden-Institute of FEB RAS], 4: 41–49. (In Russ.).

4. Ganyushkin D.A., Chistyakov K.V. 2014. Mountain geosystems of the intercontinental regions of Asia: structure and modern dynamics-2014. Voprosy geografii [Problems of Geography], 137: 83–106.

5. Lapteva E.G. 2013. Subfossil pollen spectra of the modern vegetation in Southern Urals. Vestnik Bashkirskogo universiteta [Bulletin of Bashkir University], 18(1): 77–81. (In Russ.).

6. Mokhova L.M., Tarasov P., Bazarova V.B., Klimin M. 2009. Quantitative biome reconstruction using modern and late Quaternary pollen data from the southern part of the Russian Far East. Quaternary Science Reviews, 28: 2913–2926.

7. Korotkii A.M. 2002. [Geographical aspects of the formation of subfossil sporen-pollen complexes (south of the Far East)]. Vladivostok: Dal’nauka, 271 p. (In Russ.).

8. Razzhigaeva N.G., Ganzey L.A., Mokhova L.M., Makarova T.R., Panichev A.M., Kudryavtseva E.P., Arslanov Kh.A., Maksimov F.E., Starikova A.A. 2016. The development of landscapes of the Shkotovo plateau of Sikhote-Alin in the Late Holocene. Izvestiya RAN. Seriya geograficheskaya, 3: 65–80. (In Russ.).

9. Razzhigaeva N.G., Ganzey L.A., Grebennikova T.A., Mokhova L.M., Kopoteva T.A., Kudryavtseva E.P., Arslanov Kh.A., Maksimov F.E., Petrov A.Yu., Klimin M.A. 2019. Development of the natural environment of midlands of the Southern Sikhote-Alin recorded in the Sergeev plateau peat bogs. Russian J. of Pacific Geology, 13(1): 11–28.

10. Vyshin I.B. 1990. [Vascular plants of the Sikhote-Alin highlands]. Vladivostok: DVO AN SSSR, 186 p. (In Russ.).

11. Skirin F.V., Skirina I.F. 2012. [Ecology-substrate confinement of epiphytic lichens of the fir-spruce and cedar-broad-leaved forests of the Southern Sikhote-Alin]. Turczaninowia, 15(1): 70–79. (In Russ.).

12. Prokopenko S.V. 2011. Taxonomic composition and analysis of the high-mountains flora of the Southern Sikhote-Alin Range. Komarovskie chteniya = V.L. Komarov Memorial Lectures, 58: 37–131. (In Russ.).

13. Marchenko N.A. 1991. [Vertical gradients of the meteorological elements in Primorsky Krai and possibilities of extrapolating the data of weather stations]. Geografiya i prirodnye resursy = Geography and Natural Resources, 3: 138–143. (In Russ.).

14. Kolesnikov B.P. 1961. Vegetation. In: Dal’niy Vostok [The Far East]. Moscow: AN SSSR, 183–246. (In Russ.).

15. Kiselev A.N., Kudryavtseva E.P. 1992. [High-mountain vegetation of South Primorie]. Moscow: Nauka, 117 p. (In Russ.).

16. Pokrovskaya I.M. 1966. [A technique of cameral works]. In: [Paleopalynology]. Leningrad: Nedra, 1, 32–61. (In Russ.).

17. Hammer O., Harper D.A.T., Ryan P.D. 2001. PAST: Paleontological statistics software package for education and data analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4(1): 1–9.

18. [Distribution ranges of trees and shrubs in USSR]. 1977. Vol. 1. Leningrad: Nauka, 164 p. (In Russ.).

19. Kudryavtseva E.P. 2012. [Updating the altitudinal limits of the distribution of some dendroflora species in the South Sikhote-Alin]. In: [Forests of the Russian Far East: monitoring of fo­rests dynamics of the Russian Far East]. Vladivostok: LAINS, 87–91. (In Russ.).

20. Novenko E.Yu., Mazey N.G., Zernitskaya V.P. 2017. [Recent spore-pollen spectra of the protected areas of the European part of Russia as a key to the interpretation of the results of paleoecological studies]. Nature Conservation Research. Zapovednaya nauka [Conservation Science], 2(2): 55–65. (In Russ.).

21. Mokhova L.M. 2020. [Analysis of the composition of spore-pollen rain and subfossil pollen spectrum in the valleys of Partizanka and Kievka rivers (South Primorye) for the paleolandscape investigations]. Vestnik SVNTs DVO RAN = Bull. of the North-East Scientific Center FEB RAS, 2: 10–21. (In Russ.).

22. Vorob’ev D.P. 1968. [Wild trees and shrubs of the Far East]. Leningrad: Nauka, 277 p. (In Russ.).